By: Tricia Hussung
Becoming a social worker is an ideal career path for those seeking to help others and make a positive impact in their communities. In general, social workers “help people solve and cope with problems in their everyday lives,” according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). They work closely with individuals and communities to assess needs and provide both resources and support.
The overall aim of social workers is to improve quality of life for their clients by providing access to resources and services that meet their specific needs. They may work with children, adults, people with disabilities, or older populations. Specific job responsibilities vary depending on client type, but all social workers are responsible for maintaining a caseload and keeping detailed records concerning each of their clients.
One of the most important elements to a social worker’s career is advocacy. They can help raise awareness about key issues on the local, state, or even national level, serving as a voice for their clients. As part of this work, they may work closely with community leaders and organizations to develop new resources or improve existing initiatives.
Social work is not a one-size-fits-all job. There are a variety of different types of social workers, each with their own clients and specific responsibilities, from treating drug addiction to locating qualified foster families. The following are some social work specialization options.
Child and Family Social Workers
This type of social worker serves families who need help. This includes protecting children in vulnerable situations and helping parents access resources such as housing, healthcare, or nutrition benefits. Another important responsibility for child and family social workers is arranging adoptions or placing children in foster care. Employment of child and family social workers is expected to grow 6 percent through 2024.
School Social Workers
As the name suggests, school social workers usually work within school systems. They work closely with students, parents, and administrators to “improve students’ academic performance and social development,” according to the BLS. They might address issues such as bullying, truancy, or misbehavior. In many cases, struggling students are referred to school social workers by their teachers. The BLS reports that demand for school social workers is the same (6 percent) as for child and family social workers through 2024.
Clinical Social Workers
Also known as licensed clinical social workers, these social workers are responsible for diagnosing and treating clients with mental health or substance abuse issues. Through individual or group therapy, clinical social workers help individuals create strategies to cope with existing issues and change their behavior.
Clinical social workers may refer clients to other healthcare resources such as psychiatrists or support groups. They usually work in private practice. The BLS reports that employment of mental health and substance abuse social workers is projected to grow 19 percent through 2024; that rate is much faster than the national average for all occupations.
Healthcare Social Workers
This type of social worker is responsible for helping patients “understand their diagnosis and make the necessary adjustments to their lifestyle, housing, or healthcare,” according to the BLS. This might include conducting support groups and providing information on patient resources like home care. Like clinical social work, the healthcare social work specialization is experiencing rapid growth. The BLS reports a 19 percent increase in employment through 2024.
Social Worker Education Requirements
For entry-level social work roles, a bachelor’s degree in social work (BSW) is required. BSW programs prepare students for social work roles that involve working directly with clients. They “teach students about diverse populations, human behavior, social welfare policy, and ethics in social work,” the BLS says. Students must complete internships or supervised fieldwork as part of their education, as accredited BSW programs require a minimum of 400 hours of supervised field experience.
Clinical social workers must have a master’s degree in social work (MSW) along with two years of work experience in a supervised clinical setting, the BLS notes. Licensure is also needed, and specific licensure and certification requirements vary by state. The median annual salary for social workers is $45,900.
Head Start May Protect Against Foster Care Placement
Participating in Head Start may help prevent young children from being placed in foster care, finds a national study led by a Michigan State University researcher.
Kids up to age 5 in the federal government’s preschool program were 93 percent less likely to end up in foster care than kids in the child welfare system who had no type of early care and education, said Sacha Klein, MSU assistant professor of social work.
Klein and colleagues examined multiple forms of early care and education – from daycare with a family member to more structured programs – and found Head Start was the only one to guard against foster care placement.
“The findings seem to add to what we already know about the benefits of Head Start,” Klein said. “This new evidence suggests Head Start not only helps kids develop and allows parents to go to work, but it may also help at-risk kids from ending up in the foster care system.”
Klein and colleagues studied the national survey data of nearly 2,000 families in which a child had entered the child welfare system for suspicion of abuse or neglect. Those children were either pulled from the home or were being overseen by a caseworker.
Klein said Head Start may protect against foster care because of its focus on the entire family. Services go beyond providing preschool education to include supporting parental goals such as housing stability, continued education and financial security.
There are more than 400,000 children in foster care in the United States, about a third of them under the age of 5, according to the most recent report from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. All children in foster care automatically qualify for free Head Start services, regardless of income level.
Klein said the findings suggest policymakers should consider making all children in the child welfare system, including those living at home, automatically eligible for Head Start. That could help prevent more kids from ending up in foster care.
While foster care can be a vital resource for protecting children from abusive and neglectful parents, it is rarely a panacea for young kids, the study notes.
“Indeed, young children who are placed in foster care often have compromised socio-emotional, language and cognitive development and poor early academic and health outcomes,” the authors write. “Trauma and deprivation experienced before removal may largely drive these developmental deficits, but foster care often fails to alleviate them and sometimes can worsen them.”
Klein’s co-authors are Lauren Fries of MSU and Mary Emmons of Children’s Institute Inc. in Los Angeles.
Rescuing Sex Trafficking Victims
Forty years ago, it wasn’t unusual to find Lois Lee, Ph.D., J.D. wandering the streets and alleys of Los Angeles at 3 a.m.; she even did so while pregnant with her son.
Dr. Lee was looking for victims of sex trafficking and those who exploited them.
Walking miles along Sunset, Santa Monica and Hollywood Boulevards, the then-24-year-old would hand out business cards with her hotline number, encouraging victims to call and letting them know what kind of help they’d find.
“These are girls, boys and transgender children that would fall between the cracks of the system,” remembers Lee. “They had nowhere to go — no one was providing a bed or a school or offering to take care of these kids.”
So, she created that place.
From 1979 to 1981, Lee housed more than 250 sex trafficking victims in her own home, all while building the Children of the Night outreach program; the privately funded nonprofit organization would become unlike any other in existence at the time, or even today, rescuing children from child prostitution and providing housing, education and treatment.
But perhaps most important, Lee gave them hope.
An Unimaginable Life
Lee was raised in Los Angeles, the eldest child in a family of three girls. It was a childhood she describes as healthy, safe and sheltered.
So when, as a graduate student at California State University, Dominguez Hills, her faculty mentor Jeanne Curran, PhD., then a professor of sociology, introduced her to the underworld of sex trafficking, it was a wake-up call.
“I wanted to make everything better because I just couldn’t imagine someone living in these types of conditions,” explains Lee, who graduated from CSU Dominguez Hills with a bachelor’s degree in behavioral science in 1973 and a master’s in sociology in 1977.
It was at CSUDH that she developed the skills she’d later use to address child sex trafficking. Lee also taught courses at the campus’s Social Systems Research Center, then led by Dr. Curran. The center has since been renamed the Urban Community Research Center.
“Jeanne became a mentor for me, both on- and off-campus. She influenced my life and academic choices so much,” says Lee, a first-generation college student.
“She and CSU Dominguez Hills empowered me.”
Victims, Not Criminals
Late one night in 1977, Lee received a call from a woman who operated an escort service. A 17-year-old she worked with had not returned and she was unable to contact her.
Afraid, she had called Lee for guidance. Lee went to the police, who dismissed the call and refused to help. The next morning, the girl’s body was found; she had become one of the Hillside Stranglers’victims.
Frustrated by the lack of resources that were available to these girls, Lee appeared on an L.A. news broadcast, giving out her personal phone number and encouraging prostitutes with knowledge of the case to reach out to her directly. She promised confidentiality.
“I coordinated everything just as I had learned from Jeanne at CSU Dominguez Hills,” Lee recalls. “And that was really the beginning of my work.”
Lee would go on to play a critical role in the Hillside Strangler trial, testifying in the case and coordinating witnesses for the prosecution.
At just 27, Lee garnered attention when she sued the Los Angeles Police Department for prosecuting underage prostitutes while letting their customers go free.
She won the case and has gone on to file a number of other lawsuits.
“I taught vice detectives nationwide that there were children prostituting and they needed to be treated differently,” says the President’s Volunteer Action Award recipient. She strongly advocated – and still does – to have the children referred to and treated as victims, not criminals.
Education: The Key to Success
To date, Children of the Night’s president and founder is credited with rescuing more than 10,000 children from prostitution in the U.S.
The organization’s shelter, located in Van Nuys, California, offers no-cost housing for as many as 12 children ages 11 to 17. They attend classes at the on-site school, receive individualized treatment, and participate in fun outings. A nationwide toll-free hotline is also staffed 24/7.
Lee sees education as the most fundamental of the services they offer, and attendance is mandatory for all residents.
“What’s really important about the development of any society is to educate the people,” she explains. “Through education, I was able to learn about the world. Education empowers.”
While children are offered treatment to manage trauma, their past experiences are not the focus, Lee stresses. “I don’t feel sorry for the children with whom I work,” she says. “[That] incapacitates their ability to become strong and independent. I want the world for my kids. I have very high expectations of them.”
Which is not to say she isn’t deeply empathetic to what they’ve faced.
“There is no way that I can make what happened to them go away, but I can … put distance between their old lifestyle and their life now.”
Today, Lee is regarded as one of the world’s leading experts in rescuing child sex trafficking victims, raising awareness on a topic that previously wasn’t talked about. In 1981, the General Accounting Office estimated there were 600,000 children under the age of 16 working as prostitutes in the United States. Today, that number is estimated to be 100,000.
In January 2017, Children of the Night announced a new global initiative to rescue 10,000 more children worldwide from sex trafficking.
Lee is also passionate about giving back to the campus that helped turn her dream into an advocacy mission that has no doubt saved thousands of lives.
“So much of what I have done and have been able to do in my life is because of my time at CSU Dominguez Hills,” Lee says. “The faculty raised me and nourished me. They liked to take risks and they challenged traditional thinking processes. “Dominguez Hills taught me how to break down barriers.”
It’s National Coming Out Day
Today is National Coming Out Day which is a day of raising awareness and destigmatization for the LGBTQ community.
It's #NationalComingOutDay! Come out as gay. Come out as trans. Come out as supporting equality. We need your voices now.
— Ellen DeGeneres (@TheEllenShow) October 11, 2017
2. If you think you're ready to come out as LGBT then pick one person you trust and speak to them. It's not a race! #NationalComingOutDay
— Wayne Dhesi (@WayneDavid81) October 11, 2017
3. If you don't feel comfortable using a label for your identity then don't. Try explaining how you feel instead. #NationalComingOutDay
— Wayne Dhesi (@WayneDavid81) October 11, 2017
You were NEVER created to feel ashamed, unworthy, condemned or defeated. You were created to feel victorious. #NationalComingOutDay
— Daniel Brocklebank (@Dan_Brocklebank) October 11, 2017
Texting is the preferred method of communication for young people.
— Luke ♋️✨ (@LukeGrayyy) October 11, 2017
Proof you have great friends who also will throw you a party.
— ash 🍂 | 293 (@flickerofhcpe) October 11, 2017
Great Advice, don’t feel pressured to do anything or be afraid to show your true self…Write your own story!
Don't feel pressured into doing it.
You'll know when the time is right for you.
Write your own story ❤#NationalComingOutDay
— Iain (@BeaIe_) October 11, 2017
Today is #NationalComingOutDay! My message to LGBT youth: We love and accept you for who you are. Don’t be afraid to be true to yourself!
— Sen Dianne Feinstein (@SenFeinstein) October 11, 2017
Reminders on #NationalComingOutDay:
-if you can't be out, your sexuality is still valid
-if you aren't ready, your sexuality is still valid
— Mackenzi Lee (@themackenzilee) October 11, 2017
I would love it if you could be yourself. And be happy #NationalComingOutDay
— bella thorne (@bellathorne) October 11, 2017
Happy Coming Out Day!
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Participating in Head Start may help prevent young children from being placed in foster care, finds a national study led...
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