Glenn Ford, a 64 year-old African American man originally from California, was wrongfully convicted of a murder that took place on November 5, 1983, in Shreveport, Louisiana. The victim was Isadore Rozeman, a jeweler, who was shot behind the counter in his store. Mr. Ford was prosecuted by former lead district attorney, A.M. “Marty” Stroud III, who believed that he charged the right man for the crime committed. In 1984, Mr. Ford was convicted of capital murder by an all-white jury and was sentenced to death by way of electrocution.
Last month in response to an editorial in The Times, former prosecutor Marty Stroud wrote an apology for his role in sending Glenn Ford to death row. Ford was exonerated nearly three decades later after Louisiana presented new evidence that Mr. Ford was not the killer, and he was released from prison and the conviction against him was vacated. However, he was not declared innocent and was denied compensation for wrongful conviction.
In 2013, an unidentified informant revealed that another man originally implicated in the crime, confessed to killing Mr. Rozeman. For nearly thirty years, Mr. Ford maintained his innocence and filed numerous appeals which were denied. He was released from Louisiana State Penitentiary at Angola after the state presented its new evidence. The University of Michigan School of Law’s National Registry of Exonerations reports a total of 1,570 known exonerations in the United States since 1989.
Glenn Ford’s Life after Exoneration
In December, 2014, Mr. Ford filed a petition under Louisiana law that allows state compensation for those who have been wrongfully convicted and imprisoned. Statutory requirements include that Mr. Ford prove his factual innocence of the crime for which he was convicted. The Attorney General’s office opposed his request and maintained that despite the new exculpatory evidence, Mr. Ford could not prove that he was, “factually innocent.” Nearly a year after Mr. Ford’s exoneration a Caddo Parish Judge denied a state compensation request from Mr. Ford on the basis that Mr. Ford may have been guilty of lesser crimes.
We are disappointed with the court’s decision today denying Glenn Ford compensation for the 30 years he spent on death row for a crime the state of Louisiana agrees he did not commit. In its denial, the court adopted the state’s argument opposing compensation. The ruling inflated the fact that Mr. Ford knew the people who committed the crime and insinuated that Mr. Ford was more involved in the crime than the facts in the record indicate. This is the latest in a series of great injustices that Mr. Ford has suffered over the last 30 years, attorney Kristin Wenstrom of the Innocence Project New Orleans. Read Full Article
The Louisiana Death Penalty
Once a proponent for the death penalty, Mr. Stroud now staunchly opposes the use of capital punishment and condemns the state’s denial of Mr. Ford’s compensation. After three decades of a wrongful conviction, unjust incarceration, and painful waiting of a death row execution, Mr. Ford is currently undergoing chemotherapy in a battle against Stage 4 lung cancer. His physicians have given him only eight or nine months to live. In his letter to the Times, Mr. Stroud attributed his young age and inexperience with trying a capital case as some viable reasons why the death penalty cannot be administered fairly. Well after Mr. Ford was convicted, Mr. Stroud stated that he began to question his own belief in the death penalty and cited 144 known exonerations from the Innocence Project in his letter. He said, “That should tell anyone that our system does not work.”
Still, Louisiana is fully entrenched in its political reality and to maintain the death penalty out of a misguided moral crusade. Former ADA Stroud’s recent apology letter and position on repealing a “barbaric” use of the death penalty has created a national dialogue of dueling opinions on capital punishment. Assistant District Attorney, Dale Cox of Louisiana, maintains a strong position in favor for maintaining a state death penalty and justifies its use in furtherance of revenge, even despite the recent exculpatory evidence presented in Mr. Ford’s case. In a statement to the Shreveport Times, ADA Cox said,
“I think we need to kill more people. . .I think the death penalty should be used more often.”
It is clear that after all the legal errors, outright racism, proven wrongful convictions, and record exonerations throughout the country, logic is completely absent in the current national debate over the death penalty. Moreover, the fact that Mr. Ford is an African American man who has unjustly lost three decades of his life in prison and the blatant disregard to provide compensation for his lost time account for the missing part of Marty Stroud’s apology letter— that we are wrongfully convicting and over-criminalizing African American men at alarmingly high rates, placing them on death row, and committing state enforced lynchings.
A 2007 study of death sentences in Connecticut conducted by Yale University School of Law revealed that African-American defendants receive the death penalty at three times the rate of white defendants in cases where the victims are white. In addition, Amnesty International documented the national decline in the use of the death penalty since 2000 and the documented arbitrariness of the application of capital punishment throughout the country.
In this regard, Louisiana must realize that its maintenance of one of the most abusive state penitentiaries and its high rate of death row executions, despite increasing cases of innocence and exoneration, constitute a sinking ship. If Louisiana does not have the courtesy to provide Mr. Ford his just compensation, the state’s failure to recognize the obsolete and barbaric nature of waiting in suspense on death row for nearly three decades, constitutes a horrific human rights violation under international law.
The Death Penalty under International Law
The U.N. Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (the Torture Convention) was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on December 10, 1984. It was ratified by the United States in 1994. 176 nations have either ratified or signed the torture convention. The treaty forbids psychological and physical abuse of people in prisons and detention, internationally. The language of the Convention is largely open ended to include the death penalty in its broad definition of torture. It is clear that the United States is in violation of the Torture Convention in its application of the death penalty.
Under the Torture Convention, Mr. Ford’s excessive waiting period of three decades on death row is a direct violation of international law. Historically, other death penalty cases in various parts of the world were documented as excessive torture when waiting for execution for fourteen years or seventeen years. International human rights law supports Mr. Ford’s right to compensation by its local state and to render equity for the dire psychological and physical consequences of waiting to be executed by way of electrocution. Aside from his innocence claim, the very nature of waiting for a death row execution was the most profound human rights abuse Mr. Ford could possibly endure.
Update: Glenn Ford has since passed away.
Scottish Survivor Groups Encourage All Survivors of Abuse in Care to Take Part in a Milestone Consultation
Survivor groups in Scotland have called on all survivors of abuse in care to take part in an important consultation, allowing individuals to share their views on a possible financial redress scheme for the first time.
The consultation has been developed and delivered through a collaboration between a range of partners including survivor representatives (Interaction Action Plan Review Group) and CELCIS (the Centre for Excellence for Looked After Children in Scotland).
With just four weeks left to the deadline of Friday 17 November to complete the consultation, survivor groups have spoken out about the need for all survivors of abuse in care to take part.
David Whelan, spokesperson from Former Boys and Girls Abused in Quarriers group (FBGA), commented: “This redress and compensation consultation gives everyone who has experienced abuse in the care system in Scotland an opportunity to share their views. The consultation offers real choices to the individual and survivor groups as to what it is they would like in any proposed redress-consultation scheme. It allows all survivors a chance to have their voices and opinions heard. We would encourage as many survivors as possible to take part over the next month.
“Former Boys and Girls Abused in Quarriers group fully support this consultation which was put together in a partnership with other victims-survivors, the Scottish Human Rights Commission, CELCIS, The Scottish Government and others.”
Judith Robertson, Chair of the Scottish Human Rights Commission, said: “Anyone who has been subjected to abuse has a human right to access justice and to an effective and fair remedy. Everyone has the right to live and be treated with dignity. The Scottish Human Rights Commission welcomes the consultation by the InterAction Review Group and CELCIS on financial redress for historic abuse. It is a crucial part of developing Scotland’s Action Plan on Historic Abuse and we encourage anyone who is themselves a survivor of childhood abuse to take part.”
Joanne McMeeking, Head of Improving Care Experiences at CELCIS, said: “We are in the final month of the consultation process, which is a milestone in terms of seeking justice for survivors of abuse in care in Scotland. Completing this consultation questionnaire gives survivors a way to have their views about potential financial redress seen and heard.”
The consultation is open to all victims/survivors of historical abuse in care as defined by the Terms of Reference of the Scottish Child Abuse Inquiry and is available online.
Rescuing Sex Trafficking Victims
Forty years ago, it wasn’t unusual to find Lois Lee, Ph.D., J.D. wandering the streets and alleys of Los Angeles at 3 a.m.; she even did so while pregnant with her son.
Dr. Lee was looking for victims of sex trafficking and those who exploited them.
Walking miles along Sunset, Santa Monica and Hollywood Boulevards, the then-24-year-old would hand out business cards with her hotline number, encouraging victims to call and letting them know what kind of help they’d find.
“These are girls, boys and transgender children that would fall between the cracks of the system,” remembers Lee. “They had nowhere to go — no one was providing a bed or a school or offering to take care of these kids.”
So, she created that place.
From 1979 to 1981, Lee housed more than 250 sex trafficking victims in her own home, all while building the Children of the Night outreach program; the privately funded nonprofit organization would become unlike any other in existence at the time, or even today, rescuing children from child prostitution and providing housing, education and treatment.
But perhaps most important, Lee gave them hope.
An Unimaginable Life
Lee was raised in Los Angeles, the eldest child in a family of three girls. It was a childhood she describes as healthy, safe and sheltered.
So when, as a graduate student at California State University, Dominguez Hills, her faculty mentor Jeanne Curran, PhD., then a professor of sociology, introduced her to the underworld of sex trafficking, it was a wake-up call.
“I wanted to make everything better because I just couldn’t imagine someone living in these types of conditions,” explains Lee, who graduated from CSU Dominguez Hills with a bachelor’s degree in behavioral science in 1973 and a master’s in sociology in 1977.
It was at CSUDH that she developed the skills she’d later use to address child sex trafficking. Lee also taught courses at the campus’s Social Systems Research Center, then led by Dr. Curran. The center has since been renamed the Urban Community Research Center.
“Jeanne became a mentor for me, both on- and off-campus. She influenced my life and academic choices so much,” says Lee, a first-generation college student.
“She and CSU Dominguez Hills empowered me.”
Victims, Not Criminals
Late one night in 1977, Lee received a call from a woman who operated an escort service. A 17-year-old she worked with had not returned and she was unable to contact her.
Afraid, she had called Lee for guidance. Lee went to the police, who dismissed the call and refused to help. The next morning, the girl’s body was found; she had become one of the Hillside Stranglers’victims.
Frustrated by the lack of resources that were available to these girls, Lee appeared on an L.A. news broadcast, giving out her personal phone number and encouraging prostitutes with knowledge of the case to reach out to her directly. She promised confidentiality.
“I coordinated everything just as I had learned from Jeanne at CSU Dominguez Hills,” Lee recalls. “And that was really the beginning of my work.”
Lee would go on to play a critical role in the Hillside Strangler trial, testifying in the case and coordinating witnesses for the prosecution.
At just 27, Lee garnered attention when she sued the Los Angeles Police Department for prosecuting underage prostitutes while letting their customers go free.
She won the case and has gone on to file a number of other lawsuits.
“I taught vice detectives nationwide that there were children prostituting and they needed to be treated differently,” says the President’s Volunteer Action Award recipient. She strongly advocated – and still does – to have the children referred to and treated as victims, not criminals.
Education: The Key to Success
To date, Children of the Night’s president and founder is credited with rescuing more than 10,000 children from prostitution in the U.S.
The organization’s shelter, located in Van Nuys, California, offers no-cost housing for as many as 12 children ages 11 to 17. They attend classes at the on-site school, receive individualized treatment, and participate in fun outings. A nationwide toll-free hotline is also staffed 24/7.
Lee sees education as the most fundamental of the services they offer, and attendance is mandatory for all residents.
“What’s really important about the development of any society is to educate the people,” she explains. “Through education, I was able to learn about the world. Education empowers.”
While children are offered treatment to manage trauma, their past experiences are not the focus, Lee stresses. “I don’t feel sorry for the children with whom I work,” she says. “[That] incapacitates their ability to become strong and independent. I want the world for my kids. I have very high expectations of them.”
Which is not to say she isn’t deeply empathetic to what they’ve faced.
“There is no way that I can make what happened to them go away, but I can … put distance between their old lifestyle and their life now.”
Today, Lee is regarded as one of the world’s leading experts in rescuing child sex trafficking victims, raising awareness on a topic that previously wasn’t talked about. In 1981, the General Accounting Office estimated there were 600,000 children under the age of 16 working as prostitutes in the United States. Today, that number is estimated to be 100,000.
In January 2017, Children of the Night announced a new global initiative to rescue 10,000 more children worldwide from sex trafficking.
Lee is also passionate about giving back to the campus that helped turn her dream into an advocacy mission that has no doubt saved thousands of lives.
“So much of what I have done and have been able to do in my life is because of my time at CSU Dominguez Hills,” Lee says. “The faculty raised me and nourished me. They liked to take risks and they challenged traditional thinking processes. “Dominguez Hills taught me how to break down barriers.”
A Practical Guide on How to Confront Hate
In the wake of violent protests in Charlottesville, Virginia, Tina Kempin Reuter, director of the University of Alabama at Birmingham Institute for Human Rights offers some practical tips on how to confront hate.
Know your human rights
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights is the key document guiding human rights advocacy. It is based on the universality, inalienability, and indivisibility of human rights and is founded on the core values of equality, non-discrimination and human dignity.
“Knowing one’s human rights is an important step that often gets forgotten,” Reuter said. “Learning the content and extent of basic human rights will give people the tools and language needed to address certain issues. Discrimination, suppression, racism, marginalization, and violence against individuals or groups are human rights violations that must be confronted.”
Reuter urges reporting human rights violations to the authorities such as the Civil Rights Division of the United States Department of Justice or other entities such as the American Civil Liberties Union. If an incident occurs in the workplace, inform your human resources representative or a diversity officer. At UAB, students, faculty, and staff can contact the Office of Diversity, Equity and Inclusion. You can learn more about international human rights by visiting the United Nations Human Rights website and by reading the UAB Institute for Human Rights blog, where faculty and students write about international human rights issues.
Speak up in the face of injustice
Once you know what human rights and human rights violations are, Reuter encourages everyone to pay attention and speak up in the face of injustice. Pay attention to what happens in your everyday life. Document, record and monitor what is going on around you, and if you see injustice, say something.
“The goal is to make everyday suppression of a specific group based on race, color, religion, ethnicity, immigration status, sex, gender, sexual orientation, age or disability status just as unacceptable as the violence and hatred that has occurred in Charlottesville,” Reuter said. “It’s these normal, hidden human rights violations that are particularly dangerous to our society and that we have to confront together.”
Be aware of your own biases
One of the ways to overcome biases and stereotypes is to engage with those who are different. Research shows that interpersonal contact is one of the best ways to reduce prejudice. This theory is called contact hypothesis. The theory suggests that under appropriate conditions interpersonal contact is one of the most effective ways to reduce prejudice between majority and minority groups.
“It is incredibly important to be aware of your own biases,” Reuter said. “We all have them. Realize if you cross the street when a person of a different race walks toward you. Notice if you assume that someone is less competent because she is a woman, a person of color or Muslim. Think about systemic racism and structural violence in your own environment, and find ways to confront them. Actively learn about how our society has grown to marginalize some to the benefit of others. I encourage people to reach out and make new friends outside of their race, religion and gender.”
Join a movement or a cause that fits your passions and interests
Join a movement, and talk with others who feel the same. Look for a rally in your community. Organize a vigil. Participate in a discussion. Engage with others. Get together formally or informally. Look for opportunities to talk. The UAB Institute for Human Rights is a part of the StandAsOne Coalition. If you are a UAB student, you can join the Students for Human Rights club.
“Not all of us are born to be activists or community organizers,” Reuter said. “We cannot all become Martin Luther King, Nelson Mandela or Leymah Gboweee; but we all can contribute by supporting the movement. Think about what you are good at and how your skills and talent can be used to move a cause forward.”
Call your representatives
One of the most effective ways to achieve policy change is to call local and state representatives. Reuter says calling is much more impactful than writing an email, Facebook message or letter. She advises anyone contacting their local representative to be polite to the staff, which is who you will most likely get on the line. Their staff members do not have influence on the decision-making process, but they will record your call and do not mind taking opposing views as long as the conversation is civil.
This step does not have to be formal. You can educate others by leading by example, or by bringing a friend along to a conversation you are having. It can happen person to person, on social media or on any other platform you use to connect with others. Creating art, poems and performances are incredible ways to get your point across to people who might find that formal ways of education do not resonate with them.
“It is such a privilege to be an educator,” Reuter said. “It is one of my favorite parts of my job to talk to students about issues that affect the world and to encourage them to learn more about these topics. It’s something that everyone can do. Teach your children and young relatives about kindness, human rights, and peace building. Teach them also about systemic suppression, racism and the way our society has oppressed minorities. Talk to them about what bothers you and what you would like to achieve. You don’t have to be a professor or teacher to educate others.”
One of the fastest and easiest opportunities to make an impact is to donate to an organization that fights for human rights or civil rights.
There are a number of organizations dedicated to ensuring the preservation of individual rights and liberties, one of which is the UAB Institute for Human Rights. You can learn more about the Institute here.
Take care of yourself
Confronting issues such as hatred, violence, and suppression can take a mental and physical toll on anyone. Reuter says it is important to know what you can and cannot do, what you are willing to do, and what your priorities are.
“Focus on the local level. Start in your own community,” Reuter said. “That world is changed person by person, but don’t forget to take care of your needs. When you start to feel overwhelmed, shut down Facebook, Twitter, cable news and other forms of media. Enjoy time with your friends and family. Be kind to yourself, and realize that real progress takes patience.”
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