By Rachel L. West, MSW, LMSW
The 2012 Rothman Report Points to Troubling Signs that Macro Social Work is in Jeopardy
Back in 2012 the Association of Community Organization and Social Administration (ACOSA) released a report by scholar Jack Rothman that looked into concerns that were being voiced by many macro social workers and social work students.
The reason for the report being written was because the chair of ACOSA was hearing troubling reports about the state of macro (or community practice) social work from social workers and social work students. Essentially they were expressing a concern that macro social work was being squeezed out of the profession.
Between 2010 and 2011 Rothman sent out surveys to ACOSA members to find out what they were experiencing. The three most noted problems that emerged from the survey results were as follows:
- Many faculty in social work schools lack interest in or oppose macro courses and programs
- There is little or no hiring of macro faculty
- The school curriculum structure is primarily clinical
The report makes recommendations for how to remedy these problems. The top three recommendations made by those surveyed are as follows:
- Raise the visibility of macro practice and advocate for a strong place for macro social work within social work institutions and the public.
- Advocating with the Council on Social Work Education (CSWE) to get involved
- Educate and advocate with the deans and schools about the importance of including macro course work in their existing program.
On June 3rd Social Work Chats had a discussion about the Rothman report and the current state of macro social work. Participants shared their experiences and discussed solutions. You can read the chat transcript here.
During the discussion some participants mentioned that their social work program did not offer enough macro course work. Some mentioned that while their schools did not actively dissuade them from pursuing macro social work that there was great emphasis placed on clinical practice and that there was little career planning information available to them that related to macro practice. Others brought up that there may be a problem with social work licensing focusing on direct practice.
It important that we keep this dialogue going so we can come up with solutions. On Friday June 14th the Macro Social Work Student Network will be hosting a discussion panel on the Rothman Report. The event will take place at Hunter College in New York City. It is open to all social workers not just students and it is free. To register for the event go to http://macroswsnetwork.eventbrite.com/.
For those of you who are macro social workers or social work students, what has your experience been? Did your social work program offer macro course work or appropriately incorporate it into classes? Did you have difficulty locating a macro field placement? Where you actively discouraged from pursuing macro work? What do you think are the problems facing macro social work and what can be done to fix them?
By Zagalejo (Own work) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
A Student Perspective: Social Work and First Responders
It may be rare for a social work student to reflect on an assignment as something inspirational rather than a stressful experience with a deadline, but at the end of 3rd year of my social work degree, one assignment was a challenge filled with hope. The assignment allowed me to contribute to a program that will give insight to other helping professionals about the mental health of first responders: police, firefighters, paramedics and others who respond to emergencies on the frontline.
The University of Newcastle has a particularly effective way of integrating workplace experience based learning with academic learning throughout the degree. The program options offered in third year which allow students to develop a program for a real agency was the most useful for me. To know your work might form a foundation for a real program in the community was a great honour and challenge to work on.
In the beginning, I was unsure of what to expect from the program development project. I was apprehensive about working with a professional capacity with a real agency, but I was excited also to learn more and try something new. There were diverse programs offered- from gardening programs to developing group projects designed for children and developing a program for professionals working with first responders.
The university gave us a chance to preference our interests and I was fortunate enough, with some other amazing women to be selected for the first responders team. The aim of our project was to put together a draft training package for helping professionals to enhance understanding of first responder mental health.
This topic drew my interest as it was beyond my scope of knowledge and I have a keen interest in mental health, so it was intriguing to me on both a personal and professional level. On starting, I very quickly became aware that I had actually put very little thought into the work first responders do in our communities to keep us all safer.
I learned just how complex the actual work of first responders can be, I learned the challenges that first responders face as a consequence of their work, the most traumatic of which is often invisible to the communities that they protect. I learned how repetitive exposure to trauma can complicate all aspects of first responder’s lives if they don’t or can’t seek or obtain support. I learned how much awareness is lacking within the multiple levels of the community, which is needed to enact change for first responders and their families.
Also, I learned the difficulties that can be faced by first responders and their families when attempting to access help. Whilst organisational supports are in place for some of the services, the stigma, shame and potential for the loss of their profession is very real. I heard stories about those medically discharged dealing with the grief and loss of their profession and identity.
My part in the group was to examine the supports already in place for first responders. I was concerned at the limited avenues for assistance and the extent of the difficulties for first responders to seek help. Besides limited services, stigma and organisational culture are barriers to effective help seeking. I found attempting to identify potential services to be frustrating, especially when looking for options within communities rather than those which are employer organisation based. My mind quickly went to how this frustration might feel for someone who was attempting the same whilst being unwell.
Gaining insight and recognition into the role first responders play, the impacts on their mental health, their relationships and all aspects of their lives and the flow on effect to their wider social ecology, I realised just how large the scale of first responder post-traumatic stress and other mental health consequences have on our community overall.
The hardest part of this learning experience was seeing the end of the project. The topic is so significant, it is hard to not to explore the topic further. To me, this feels like a core social work and social justice issue, yet one which is invisible much of the time. My learning from this project has given me a totally new perspective. I have a renewed respect and a much deeper understanding of the issues faced by police, firefighters, paramedics and all others who work on the frontline in emergencies.
I know I’ve only scratched the surface of the knowledge it takes to work with first responders and enact positive change in their lives. I hope more research is completed and potentially more opportunities for training and professional development come up for social workers, whether it be integrated into core teaching within university programs or externally in workplaces.
Engaging Individuals Entrenched With Power and Privilege
Like many Macro students trying to obtain their MSW, I have gone through many trials and tribulations trying to pave my own path of what I can do with my degree. From the countless lectures spent being forced fed how to conduct Motivational Interviewing and Cognitive Behavior Therapy (I do not want to be a counselor) to being placed as an elementary school counselor (once again, I do not want to be a counselor). I honestly began to question if I would ever break free from the stereotypes of what position I could fill and achieve as a social worker.
Oftentimes, when a macro social worker states they do not like clinical work they are often met with the counter argument: “Clinical work is the foundation of our profession and every social worker must know how to engage their clients.” However, the clients we work with as macro social workers are not the same clients as a micro social worker. Macro social workers are working with clients entrenched with power and privilege.
Macro social workers are working with clients entrenched with power and privilege
In my opinion, we are working with the most difficult populations and we must develop a different type of skillset. Skills that allow us to navigate through the bureaucracies and change the public’s perception on what they deem underserving or the bottom of their priority list.
I have been in two different social work programs and each time as a macro social worker, I feel my education is not tailored to fit me. It wasn’t until I had to opportunity to apply for University Southern California’s Community Organizing Business Innovation (COBI) Fellowship, a program with a mission to create professionals trained to tackle organizational problems and social worker’s grand challenges by introducing, developing, and facilitating social innovation in local, national, and global settings. This mission resonated with me, and it fits my definition of what social work can be.
Over the summer, USC’s COBI Fellowship gave me the opportunity to learn and practice my macro skills. I was able to engage with individuals from 16 different agencies who are bringing innovation into the public sector and learn the tricks of the trade on how they bring positive change in resistant spaces.
There were many takeaways from the trip but here are a few:
- The OPM Innovation Lab emphasized the importance of navigating through bureaucracy and to inspire public sectors to take risk. We also learned the concept of human-centered design.
- We discovered the concept of developmental evaluation with Tanya Beer at the Center for Evaluation Innovation.
- Congresswoman Karen Bass discussed how to engage individuals with privilege in the workplace. She further discussed her Shadow Day, where a foster youth is paired with a U.S. Representative and how it is not only a transformational experience for the foster youth but also, the U.S. Rep. Once a U.S. Rep spends a day with a foster youth teaching them, it becomes personal, and they think twice before saying no against a bill in the favor of foster youth. THIS IS INNOVATION!!!
- SAMHSA discussed how to engage agencies on the importance of evaluations and message tailoring.
- Ashoka with Changemaker Executive Partner Sachin Malhan identified the difference between addressing a need and changing the system.
- Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues (SPSSI) discussed looking for ways to weigh in as professionals in policies.
- NASW consultant, Joan Levy Zlotnik discussed being at the table and articulating both facts and story.
It was inspiring to be among leaders who are experimenting with different models and methods to tackle societal problem. I gained a sense of empowerment and agency being able to sit among them and exchange ideas. Most importantly, I not only first handedly experienced the importance of having a seat at the table, but I saw my place as a social worker. After this experience, I wished more macro social work students could have an experience like this.
Like many social workers, I chose social work because I want to bring positive change in the world. Although we need social worker helping the immediate needs of individuals and their families, we also need social workers looking at the bigger picture and changing the system.
Until we invest in more macro initiatives where social work students can engage with leaders and learn the skills to navigate and collaborate with individuals who possess power and privilege, our profession will not be in the frontier of innovative change in the public sector.
Indiana State Social Work Students to Help Young Mothers
INDIANA — The Indiana State University social work department has received a grant from the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention to launch a mentoring program for young mothers re-entering society after incarceration called Next Step 2 Healthy Families.
Robyn Lugar, associate professor of social work, is the project director for this first-of-its-kind grant that creates a university-community partnership to address the needs of young mothers through the Second Chance Act of 2007, which was enacted to break the cycle of criminal recidivism. The $341,000 grant is the first issued through the act and is focused on helping young mothers.
Without proper guidance, the women could return to the criminal justice system for any number of reasons especially with the inability to find resources to adapt to life post-incarceration, Lugar said. “These situations usually happen because of something silly, like they didn’t make an appointment with a probation officer or because they didn’t have childcare or transportation. They couldn’t get there, and they end up getting sent back because they missed that appointment,” Lugar said. “The mentoring and strengthening of young fathers has proven to be a successful model, so we are adopting a similar model for this project.”
The sub-awardee on the grant is the Next Step Foundation Inc, which is a local faith-based non-profit that provides services and programs for those in recovery from addiction. Dana Simons, an Indiana State graduate student who directs Next Step, helped design the programs necessary to fulfill the grant requirements and help to train those that want to volunteer as mentors.
The incarcerated women will require a special kind of mentor. People who are interested in becoming a mentor for Next Step will have to attend training to ensure that they are approaching mentorship from a place of respect and understanding — not judgment. “A mentor is anybody who has a heart for this work and says, ‘Hey, I can give an hour of my time weekly to meet with and walk with a woman who is trying to re-enter society and become a better parent.’ It does require a 12-month commitment, so it is not a small task,” Lugar said. “There are so many barriers that these women have to overcome that it takes a village to help them. It takes the university and the community to come together and do this.”
The Next Step organization was started five years ago and has local support from churches, individual donors and volunteers. Next Step will use its network to reach out to people who might be interested in becoming mentors for this grant program. Mentors will then be matched through special software to assure mentors and mentees have shared interests.
“The university has been so supportive of this. I really appreciate ISU stepping up and contributing the resources to be able to make this thing happen,” Lugar said. The social work department and Next Step will work with Rockville Correctional Facility in west-central Indiana, providing mentorship for women nearing release.
“It’s the social work department reaching out to the community and asking, ‘How can we do social work here, in the Wabash valley?’” Lugar said. The cycle of drug use, incarceration and poverty is generational and difficult to escape, said Simons. “So they go to prison and they get some (basic skills) there, but they coming out — where do they go? How do they live? How do they parent? How do they get a job? How do they manage on the top of that they have a felony? It’s hard,” Simons said.
Next Step will work with re-entry coordinators at the prison to begin mentoring women up to three months before they are released. This year, the program wants to help as many as 50 women with the goal to help 75 in following years, as the program hopefully expands to Vigo and surrounding counties.
Simons says many people’s hearts are in the right place when they become a mentor, but to effectively coach these recently incarcerated women, mentors must understand the world through the eyes of someone who did not think graduating high school was a choice because they have never witnessed it, or someone whose parents never held a job. “We’ll have to train them to understand where some of these women are coming from, how to guide them, and hopefully these women then see that they have choices,” Simons said.
Innovating Democracy for an Equitable America
In America, democracy is a government of, by, and for the people— or is it?
In just a week since Trump’s election, racially charged incidents were reported at schools and universities ignited by President-elect Donald Trump’s win. Youth and young adults across the nation took to the streets in protest, including Baltimore, San Diego, Oakland, Minneapolis, Los Angeles, Portland, Seattle and Washington DC.
Many of those protesters were not voting-age adults— they were teenagers. They are Generation Z, that tenacious group of young people born from the mid-1990s to now, comprising 60 million Americans, outpacing even millennials. Generation Z grew up in an era of high-speed Internet, healthy eating, physical fitness and the first Black president. They are Obama’s legacy and his call to action. And if America thought they were going to contain their outrage at the dawn of a new era, we were wrong— and so was the electorate.
By the 2018 midterm elections, older Generation Z members will join millennial voters to cast another vote. More than ever, it is now up to us to step up and educate the young electorate about the legislative process. Between now and 2018, young social workers across the social work education and practice continuum have an opportunity to seize this moment and act. Congress decides which laws will be passed and which will not, thereby placing ourselves and our clients at risk.
A few days ago, Dean Richard Barth and president of the American Academy for Social Work and Social Welfare (AASWSW), welcomed E.J. Dionne Jr., DeRay McKesson, and Dr. Kimberly R. Moffitt to the University of Maryland School of Social Work as part of the Daniel Thursz Lecture Series on Social Justice. For over an hour, students and alumni were offered some basic lessons in how to organize new critical masses on a scale America has never seen before.
According to DeRay McKesson, “[this nation] needs to learn how to calibrate to the moment correctly and to organize youth to know what power looks like.” He adds that, “power can shift by midterm,” —a critical time when Generation Z members can cast a ballot for the first time.
In response to DeRay’s call to action, I could not help but think of the last two Social Work Student Advocacy Days on Capitol Hill where BSW, MSW, and doctoral students came together to make both events a success. Over 200 students in 2015 and close to 400 students from throughout the country travelled far and wide to participate in the legislative process and meet their local representatives, engaging in direct lobbying efforts to influence specific legislation supported by the profession. However, one of the lessons I learned from those experiences was that legislative change does not happen once a year— it requires continual action, even if it takes one victory at a time.
Because legislative change is an ongoing process, YSocialWork has made a new commitment to train the next generation in policy entrepreneurship and innovation. Its new initiative, Innovate Democracy for an Equitable America (IDEA), which is inspired by the Grand Challenges for Social Work Initiative, seeks to innovate the current state of democracy by supporting new ideas, working closely with local, state, and federal leaders, and supporting next-generation legislative proposals.
Call to Action: IDEA
IDEA is a policy scrimmage and bootcamp. As ambitious and groundbreaking as it sounds, IDEA offers a unique blend of innovation, design thinking, and agile project management using the Scrum methodology as a vehicle for effective policy practice in the twenty-first century. These core features are interwoven with the policymaking process, business plan competition frameworks, and social issues to usher in a critical turning point in U.S. history. The next generation needs to translate innovative policy ideas into action.
A conference aimed at changing democracy through the policymaking process would be the first of its kind to train future generations as policy entrepreneurs. These individuals work outside the formal governmental system to introduce, translate, and implement innovative ideas into public sector practice, often in the midst of social and economic downturn.
This concept which was used by John W. Kingdon (1984) is not new. However, creating a platform for millennials and the rising electorate, from Democrats to Republicans, progressives to conservatives, to answer the challenges facing American citizens wanting to innovate local and state policies, is.
In a democracy, all citizens have the right and opportunity to participate in this new age of policy innovation focused on human dignity and the value of each individual. If we want Generation Z to take part in that process, they too deserve a seat at the table.
Unfortunately, it appears America will continue to see unrest in our nation’s most volatile areas surrounding police brutality, homelessness, economic inequality, educational disparities, mental health crisis, gun violence, or a series of other social issues one can choose from. As DeRay McKesson concluded at UMSSW, “These are the challenges that lie ahead of us,” so perhaps IDEA can bring the Grand Challenges for Social Work to life not just in our community, but for those who we seek to protect.
If you are waiting for the perfect time to seize the opportunity to make a difference and join YSocialWork efforts, the time is NOW. YSocialWork is currently looking for young leaders and organizations to help us execute IDEA on Capitol Hill and across the United States. For more information, contact us here.
OSU School of Social Work Dean Is Not Silent on the #BlackLivesMatter Movement
Over the past year, we have witnessed massive protests around the world spawned by human rights violations, declining labor rights, and austerity cuts to public services. The plight for many Americans struggling with poverty and located in low-income neighborhoods are not being spared the same fate in our “land of plenty”.
These protests have brought to light the use of police forces and government resources being used to further suppress the voices of the poor and what appears to be an acceptable disdain for policing communities of color. Many have predicted this period in our history will be remembered as the third reconstruction, but how will social work be remembered regarding the most important issues in our life time?
Since Ferguson and the development of the #BlackLivesMatter Movement, it is my opinion that social work leadership is failing to engage and participate in discussions on behalf of vulnerable populations with very little political power. Largely, I have been disappointed in the social work profession as whole for the lack of any organized national efforts to advocate on a range of social issues affecting the clients we serve.
However, I was able to get a glimpse of what a top down effort could look like when social work leadership leads an effort instead individuals being forced to act autonomously without social work leadership support. Recently, I had the opportunity to interview Ohio State University College of Social Work Dean
— OSU Social Work (@osucsw) May 6, 2015
SWH: Why was it important for you and the School of Social Work to lead a march on the #BlackLivesMatter Movement?
We have all be moved by the events of the past year and wanted a tangible demonstration of support for our students, faculty, and staff colleagues. It is important to hold conversation about emergent social topics. But as social workers, it is also important at times to transcend talk. By marching we “walked our talk” and provided a demonstration of our concern and support that transcended conversation.
SWH: How are student’s processing in the classroom the racial tension and angst manifesting in a variety ways across the country?
I believe that a lot of our community is in pain regarding the level of racial tension and violence. We feel the need to communicate our concern and support. Although we hosted a public forum on these issues, we did not think we were doing an effective enough job of providing the vehicles for classroom attention to the issues that are manifesting nationwide. I believe that left our entire community wanting more, and looking to us for a strong statement. So we took a walk together.
SWH: How did the use of social media help to increase awareness of your school’s on the ground efforts with the #BlackLivesMatter March?
Social Media played a critical role. We made a decision to participate in the walk on Wednesday, and then marched together on Saturday, only three days later. All of our communication was via social media. Social media was important in allowing those who wanted to support the walk but were unable to attend. Via social media our impact and reach was much broader, and allowed far great involvement. To further carry the message we created a Storify to tell the social media story of our day, https://storify.com/
SWH: How do you think social work institutions and members of our profession can engage in the large discussion on poverty and institutional racism within the systems we work?
Social media is an important vehicle for carrying the message. It is not constrained by traditional media, and its much more real time. We are not dependent on the mainstream for getting our message out. I also think it’s important to be open to conversation that moves us toward solution. It is important to be a witness and a voice in the face of social injustice and a voice. As social workers we need to transcend complaint alone and lean into difficult issues with an expectation of leading change. Finally,
SWH: What do you feel are the biggest barriers and challenges for social workers to engage and/or have an impact on the social issues of our day?
Courage and curiosity are two important precursors to having an impact on important social issues. Courage allows us to believe that we can make a difference, and helps us be patient for the enduring effort. Curiosity is the path to new solutions Rather than thinking we have all the answers, a willingness to see a problem in a completely different way is the only path to new strategies. We need more sentences starting with “what if?” and fewer with “yes but”.
We are often dragged into zero-sum arguments, ones that pit vulnerable groups against each other. Should limited resources go to support needy children, or older adults? Is the oppression of people of color more urgent than attacks on the rights of the LGBTQ community? When we are arguing among ourselves we are not advancing. Nothing preserves the status-quo better than when the people who need it changed are fighting among themselves.
New Field Placement Model With Crittenton Earns Award from CSU Fullerton for its “Teaching and Mentorship” Culture
Fullerton, Calif. – Crittenton Services for Children and Families (CSCF) is proud to announce the agency’s nomination and selection as this year’s recipient of the Most Committed Partner award by both the CSUF Social Work Department and the CSUF Center for Internship & Community Engagement (CICE).
Each year CICE hosts its annual Community Engagement Awards as a way to highlight students, faculty and community partners in their efforts to strengthen the bonds of engagement that connect the University and the community. CICE’s main mission is to bring faculty, students, and community partners together to create high impact practices for student success.
“Our collaborative partnership with CSUF extends learning from the classroom to the community, giving students experiential learning opportunities that will build their skills, their resumes, and their ability to positively impact the world around them. It is truly a win-win,” said Joyce Capelle, Chief Executive Officer, CSCF, “We are honored to have worked alongside outstanding faculty and staff of CSUF for more than a decade, in order to provide students practical work experience while at the same time making a difference in the lives of the most vulnerable youth.”
Our California State University, Fullerton interns are spearheading a clothing drive for Crittenton youth… https://t.co/URKG7Ji3v9
— Crittenton Services (@CrittentonSoCal) November 2, 2016
Under the “Stellar Support of Students” category the CSUF Department of Social Work nominated Crittenton as an organization that has made a difference in the career trajectory of students via mentorship. As part of the non-profit’s mission, Crittenton, has made it a part of its strategic plan to make the idea of a “teaching institution” a reality and part of the overall agency culture. For its efforts in guiding and mentoring students Crittenton has been recognized for going above and beyond its duties as an experiential learning host site.
In addition, as of 2015 both Crittenton and CSUF celebrate a 10-year anniversary working together to serve vulnerable children and their families curtail the effects of child abuse, neglect and trauma.
Since the inception of this evidenced-based field placement opportunity for social services, human services, and social work students have been able to take ample opportunity to earn academic units, licensing requirements and gain valuable work experience at a nationally accredited agency.
In fact, throughout this 10-year partnership period roughly 121 undergraduates and 35 graduate students from CSUF have been given the opportunity to take part of a non-profit’s mission with a connection to a proud national child welfare legacy that goes back to 1883. Nearly 30 CSUF students have been hired as Crittenton employees via this partnership.
At the helm of this internship program collaboration with CSUF is executive team member and CSUF Alumna, Denise Cunningham, Senior Vice President of Crittenton Services.
Cunningham has been a strong advocate of community partnerships between Crittenton and higher education institutions, and has also served in the capacity of a mentor. Her commitment to student success is such that as of this year the CSUF Social Work Department has appointed her Chairperson of the department’s advisory council.
To build tomorrow’s workforce in the human services fields it takes the acquisition of knowledge in the classroom in tandem with developing skill-sets in the community. Crittenton’s partnership with CSUF is an excellent example of this collaborative approach to developing effective practitioners and future change agents.
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